kaizenlab-quality

Metallography

The laboratory has availability of technical experts and the necessary equipment in order to execute macrostructural and microstructural investigations:

Determination of volume fraction by systematic manual point count – ASTM E562

The ASTM E562 standard provides the statistical calculation of a phase presence executing a manual counting using grids and employing a number of fields that is consonant to the requested coverage.

Determination of volume fraction by automatic image analysis – ASTM E1245 / ASTM E562

The ASTM E1245 standard provides the evaluation of a secondary phase employing stereological procedures executed by an automatic image analyzer (microscope + software).

Determination of grain size –Bechet Beaujard method – ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643

The Bechet Beaujard method for the ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643 standards, it provides the evaluation of the grain employing an aqueous picric acid solution with the addition of a wetting agent.

Determination of grain size – Kohn method – ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643

The Kohn or oxidation method for the ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643 standards provides the execution of an oxidation in order to point out the austenitic grain.

Determination of grain size – McQuaid-Ehn method – ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643

The McQuaid-Ehn method for the ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643 standards provides the use of carbon and barium carbonate, in order to point out the grain boundaries at the austenitising temperature.

Determination of grain size by direct method – ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643

The direct method for the ASTM E112 / UNI EN ISO 643 standards provides a mettallographic etching that points out the grain boundaries.

Austenitic grain isotropy evaluation – ASTM E112

The evaluation of the austenitic grain isotropy in respect of the ASTM E112 standard provides the evaluation of the isotropy/anisotropy grade observing various faces of the object specimen.

Determination of inclusion content – ASTM E45 / ISO 4967 / DIN EN 50602

The ASTM E45 / ISO 4967 / DIN EN 50602 standards provide various methods in order to characterize the inclusions in relation to the size, shape, concentration and distribution, in addition to the classification of the degree of severity.

Macrographic examination – ASTM E604/604M / ASTM E381

The ASTM E604/604M and ASTM E381 permit to obtain information about the homogeneity of the materials employing chemical etchings. It is possible to observe structural variations as grain boundaries, dendrites and columnar structures, or chemical composition alteration like segregations or bandings, or discontinuities like cracks or porosity.

Baumann test – ASTM E1180

The ASTM E1180 provides a method to detect the presence of sulfides, supplying additional information about the homogeneity and quality of the product.

Austenite spacing – DVN-RP-F112 / ASTM E112

The DVN-RP-F112 and ASTM E112 standards provides methods and procedures in order to measure the austenite spacing from micrographic images of duplex stainless steels.

Micrographic measurement of decarburization layer – ASTM E1077

The ASTM E1077 standard permits to detect the carbon loss caused by the heating at high temperatures, for example during hot working o heat treatments. Micrographics are executed on a transversal section and the decarburization layer is measured by software.

Replica preparation and execution – ASTM E1351

The ASTM E1351 permits the replication and preservation of the topography and metallography of the surface, generating the negative on a polimeric film (replica).

References:

ASTM E562 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E562

ASTM E1245 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E1245

ASTM E112 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E112

UNI EN ISO 643 – http://store.uni.com/magento-1.4.0.1/index.php/uni-en-iso-643-2013.html

picric acid – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picric_acid

ASTM E45 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E45

ISO 4967 – http://www.iso.org/iso/home/store/catalogue_tc/catalogue_detail.htm?csnumber=63156

DIN EN 50602 – https://global.ihs.com/doc_detail.cfm?document_name=DIN%2050602

ASTM E604/604M – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E604

ASTM E381 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E381

ASTM E1180 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E1180

ASTM E112 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E112

austenite – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Austenite

Duplex steels – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stainless_steel

ASTM E1077 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E1077

ASTM F2328M – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?F2328M

ASTM E1351 – http://www.astm.org/cgi-bin/resolver.cgi?E1351